Monday, May 25, 2020

Which Gender Influences Patterns And Processes Of...

This essay will discuss the ways in which gender influences patterns and processes of victimisation, identifying key victimological perspectives and typologies. It will consider key authors in the discipline and offer definitions of terms used. The essay will identify three issues which may impact on gendered victimisation before acknowledging the argument that radical victimology offers a more balanced approach to gendered victimisation than positivist or critical viewpoints. The Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2013) defines victimisation as â€Å"†¦a term originally used to designate an area of study concerned to address the relationship between the victim and offender.† It should be noted however that since the late 1970s, the term has†¦show more content†¦In response to this movement, more support services were established for victims and measures were provided allowing victims greater involvement in the criminal justice process through a variety of means. This increased the need for research into the effects of crime on victims and how best their needs can be met. Victimology draws together academics, activists, and policymakers from a variety of backgrounds and identifies three main victimological perspectives. Positivist victimology dates back to the emergence of victimology as a discipline in the 1940s. It looks to understand the process of victimisation and why people become victims of crime by examining the relationship between the victim and offender through an agency lens. Newburn (2013) identifies positivists such as Miers (1989) who see victimisation as being causal in nature and identify three key features: †¢ Identification of factors (individual or environmental) which produce patterns of victimisation. †¢ They focus mainly of interpersonal crimes of violence. †¢ The identification of victims who contribute to their own victimisation. Positivist victimology has made a fundamental contribution to the study of victimology by ensuring the development and refinement of quantitative victimisation. It emphasises the role of the state, criminal justice agencies and the voluntary sector in responding to the needs of victims of crime. It is however

Friday, May 15, 2020

Second Battle of Ypres in World War I

The Second Battle Ypres was fought April 22 to May 25, 1915, during World War I (1914-1918) and saw the Germans conduct a limited offensive around the strategic town of Ypres in Flanders. During the course of the battle, the Germans debuted the use of poison gas on the Western Front. This new technology provided an initial advantage, but the Germans were ultimately stopped after heavy fighting. Though the Germans had not achieved a breakthrough, they succeeded in bringing Ypres within range of their artillery. Background With the German defeat at the First Battle of the Marne in September 1914 and the unraveling of the Schlieffen Plan, both sides commenced a series of flanking maneuvers in northern France and Flanders. As the two sides sought an advantage, they clashed in Picardy, Albert, and Artois. Finally reaching the coast, the Western Front became a continuous line stretching to the Swiss frontier. In October, the Germans attempted to breakthrough at the town of Ypres in Flanders. This resulted in the First Battle of Ypres which saw the Allies hold a salient around Ypres after brutal fighting. Conflicting Strategies As trench warfare continued, both sides began assessing their options for bringing the war to a successful conclusion. Overseeing German operations, Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn preferred to focus on winning the war on the Western Front as he believed that a separate peace could be obtained with Russia. This approach clashed with General Paul von Hindenburg who wished to deliver a decisive blow in the East. Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn. Public Domain The hero of Tannenberg, he was able to use his fame and political intrigue to influence the German leadership. As a result, the decision was made to focus on the Eastern Front in 1915.  This focus ultimately resulted in the stunningly successful Gorlice-Tarnà ³w Offensive in May. An Offensive in the West Though Germany had elected to follow an east-first approach, Falkenhayn started planning for an operation against Ypres to begin in April. Intended as a limited offensive, he sought to divert Allied attention from troop movements east, secure a more commanding position in Flanders, as well as to test a new weapon, poison gas. Though tear gas had been used against the Russians in January at Bolimov, the Second Battle of Ypres would mark the debut of lethal chlorine gas. In preparation for the assault, German troops moved 5,730 90 lb. canisters of chlorine gas to the front opposite Gravenstafel Ridge which was occupied by French 45th and 87th Divisions. These units were comprised of territorial and colonial troops from Algeria and Morocco. Armies Commanders Allies General Sir Horace Smith-DorrienGeneral Herbert PlumerGeneral Henri PutzMajor General Armand de CeuninckMajor General Theophile Figeys8 divisions Germany Albrecht, Duke of Wà ¼rttemberg7 divisions The Germans Strike Around 5:00 PM on April 22, 1915, troops from Albrecht, Duke of Wà ¼rttembergs German 4th Army began releasing the gas towards the French troops at Gravenstafel. This was done by opening the gas cylinders by hand and relying on the prevailing winds to carry the gas towards the enemy.  A dangerous method of dispersal, it resulted in numerous casualties among the German forces. Drifting across the lines, the grey-green cloud struck the French 45th and 87th Divisions. Albrecht, Duke of Wà ¼rttemberg. Public Domain Unprepared for such an attack, the French troops began retreating as their comrades were blinded or collapsed from asphyxiation and damage to lung tissue. As the gas was denser than air it quickly filled low-lying areas, such as trenches, forcing the surviving French defenders into the open where they were susceptible to German fire. In short order, a gap of around 8,000 yards opened in the Allied lines as around 6,000 French soldiers died from gas-related causes. Moving forward, the Germans entered the Allied lines but their exploitation of the gap was slowed by darkness and a lack of reserves. Closing the Breach To seal the breach, the 1st Canadian Division of General Sir Horace Smith-Dorriens Second British Army was shifted to the area after dark. Forming up, elements of the division, led by the 10th Battalion, 2nd Canadian Brigade, counterattacked at Kitcheners Wood around 11:00 PM. In a brutal battle, they succeeded in reclaiming the area from the Germans but sustained high casualties in the process. Continuing pressure on the northern part of the Ypres Salient, the Germans released a second gas attack on the morning of the 24th as part of an effort to take St. Julien. The Allies Fight to Hold On Though the Canadian troops attempted to improvise protective measures such as covering their mouths and noses with water or urine-soaked handkerchiefs, they were ultimately forced to fall back though they exacted a high price from the Germans. Subsequent British counterattacks over the next two days failed to retake St. Julien and the units engaged sustained heavy losses. As fighting spread down the salient as far as Hill 60, Smith-Dorrien came to believe that only a major counter-offensive would be able to push the Germans back to their original positions.   Field Marshal Herbert Plumer. Library of Congress As such, he recommended withdrawing two miles to a new line in front of Ypres where his men could consolidate and re-form. This plan was rejected by the Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir John French, who elected to sack Smith-Dorrien and replace him with the commander of V Corps, General Herbert Plumer. Assessing the situation, Plumer also recommended falling back. Following the defeat of a small counter-offensive led by General Ferdinand Foch, French directed Plumer to begin the planned retreat. New German Attacks As the withdrawal began on May 1, the Germans again attacked with gas near Hill 60. Assaulting the Allied lines, they were met by fierce resistance from the British survivors, including many from the 1st Battalion of the Dorset Regiment, and were turned back. Having consolidated their position, the Allies were again attacked by the Germans on May 8. Opening with a heavy artillery bombardment, the Germans moved against the British 27th and 28th Divisions southeast of Ypres on Frezenberg Ridge. Meeting heavy resistance, they released a gas cloud on May 10. Having endured earlier gas attacks, the British had developed new tactics such as shelling behind the cloud to strike at the advancing German infantry. In six days of bloody fighting, the Germans were only able to advance around 2,000 yards. After a pause of eleven days, the Germans resumed the battle by releasing their largest gas attack to date across a 4.5-mile section of the front. Beginning before dawn on May 24, the German assault sought to capture Bellewaarde Ridge. In two days of fighting, the British bloodied the Germans but were still forced to concede another 1,000 yards of territory. Aftermath After the effort against Bellewaarde Ridge, the Germans brought the battle to a close due to a lack of supplies and manpower. In the fighting at Second Ypres, the British suffered around 59,275 casualties, while the Germans endured 34,933. In addition, the French incurred around 10,000. Though the Germans had failed to break through the Allied lines, they reduced the Ypres Salient to around three miles which allowed for the shelling of the city. In addition, they had secured much of the high ground in the area. The gas attack on the first day of the battle became one of the conflicts great missed opportunities.  Had the assault been backed with sufficient reserves, it may have broken through the Allied lines. The use of poison gas had come as a tactical surprise to the Allies who roundly condemned its use as barbaric and reprehensible. Though many neutral nations agreed with this assessment, it did not stop the Allies from developing their own gas weapons which debuted at Loos that September. The Second Battle of Ypres is also notable for being the engagement during which Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, MD composed the famed poem In Flanders Fields.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about the human brain - 537 Words

In this paper one will learn the different parts of the brain and their functions. Although the brain isn’t the largest organ of the human body it is the most complex and controlling organ. It is amazing how complicated the brain is. The brain controls every action within and out of your body. The brain has main areas that contain different areas that have specific functions. For instance the basal ganglia holds the lentiform and the caudate. The brain isn’t just â€Å"THE BRAIN† it is actually a group of many parts. They help to inform the brain on the things going on with the human body. The brain is split in to two main parts, the left and the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere has about the same areas as the right hemisphere. The only†¦show more content†¦The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres. The area that passes and processes information concerning touch, pain, temperature, and pressure on skin is the thalamus. The limbic system controls your behavior and emotions. It is involved in emotions such as fear, rage, pleasure, and sorrow. In the prefrontal area of the frontal lobe emotional traits are controlled. In the temporal lobe expressed behavior is controlled. The parietal lobe discriminates sensory. The occipital lobe is where visual interpretation takes place. Pons is a crossroad for nerves going up to the cortex, to the cerebellum and then down the spinal cord. The cortex is the outer gray area where thinking takes place. The olfactory cortex receives senses from the nose that it then sorts out. The area that identifies what we see by working out movements, colors, and shapes is the visual cortex. The area that receives taste senses is called gustatory cortex. The area responsible for analyzing data, performing memory functions, learning new information, forming thoughts, and making decisions is the cerebral cortex. The motor cortex is involved in muscle movement. The cerebellum is vital when carrying out complicated, skilled movements. It is much like a mini brain. If before you read this paper you thought the brain was a â€Å"one man machine† I’m sure your opinion has changed after reading his paper. It is amazing how god has created the brain to have so many areasShow MoreRelatedHuman Brain And Human Brains1477 Words   |  6 PagesWe, the human species are unique. This is a phrase we all have heard at some point in our lives. We are unique compared to other animals in our language, movements, and emotions. We have our own language which the majority of animals do not, we stand on two legs while the majority of the animals are on four legs, and we are much more sensitive to our emotional reactions, making us complex animals. Now, where does all these differences come from? As the title suggest, our human brains are incredibleRead MoreThe Brain And Its Effects On Human Brain1675 Words   |  7 Pages The brain has four main structures; the Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Limbic System, and the Brain Stem. The Cerebrum, also known as the Cerebral Cortex, is the largest part of the human brain. It is divided into four parts that are called â€Å"lobes†: there s the frontal lobe which is linked with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, emotions, and problem solving- the parietal lobe which is linked to movement, orientation, and recognitions- the occipital lobe which is linked to visual processing like objectRead MoreThe Perception Of The Human Brain s Brain953 Words   |  4 Pagesreason: survival†¦ as deep in the brain†¦we got special cells known as mirror neurons† (H. C. Sinclair, 2013). It also relates to current human behavior for the reason that it echoes the modeling or imitation behavior executed by children and adolescents. For example, individuals that are into Football will get worked up from just watching it due to similarly reacting to the responses of t he actual audience at the game. The reason as to why is because of the outcome of the human brain’s premotor cortex initiatingRead More The Human Brain Essay1341 Words   |  6 Pages Our brains weigh about three pounds and are divided into two similar looking but functionally different hemisphere, the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere. Both of which are connected by a large bundle of nerves called the corpus collosum. In some people with severe seizure disorders such as epilepsy, it was found that if this bundle of nerves was severed their seizure would either cease or a the very least be better controlled. From this surgical procedure it was discovered that the two hemispheresRead More The Human Brain Essay1189 Words   |  5 PagesThe human brain is a big, intricate—yet delicate, structure in the human body. It is the key structure in cognitive function. Any damage to the brain does not only â€Å"erase† memories but also may â€Å"deceive† th e brain to erroneously remember a new object as being familiar (2010). The innovative researchers at Cambridge University investigated this phenomenon in their research on The Paradoxial False Memory for Objects after Brain Damage. The publication began by stating the widely acceptable premiseRead MoreStress And The Human Brain1720 Words   |  7 Pagesof study for those interested in human sciences. In particular, stress is often viewed through the scopes of a Psychologist, Sociologist and an Anthropologist. The Psychologist s perspective revolves around relations between stress and the human brain. One of the questions they might ask would be if an individual can be born with stress. The answer is sometimes but not often. Researches at the University of Edinburgh found that mother’s wombs and babies brains contain a chemical protecting themRead MoreThe Human Brain : Is It Interesting?1764 Words   |  8 PagesI’ve never learned much about Psychology yet I always found it interesting. The human brain is very interesting to me, the fact that genetics can affect if you happen to be mentally insane or even a serial killer to me is astonishing. Another idea which grabs my interest is Weber’s Law. This idea has changed the way I do things in my life using my senses, including ignoring my parents loud talking or annoying habits. I’ve also been interested in learning styles. I know the different types, but IRead More The Human Brain Essay1784 Words   |  8 Page sThe Human Brain The human being is considered to be the ultimate form of life on the earth. This is not because the human body is strong and agile. Many other animals posses skills much superior to humans and are able to perform feats humans can only dream of. The one thing that distinguishes humans from all of the other organisms on this planet is the brain. The brain is the site that controls the human body. However, unlike in animals, in man, the brain is also the site of theRead MoreHuman Brain Development1231 Words   |  5 Pageswonder how this is possible if the child hasn’t even taken its first breath yet, but it is true. Brain development begins in week four of their first trimester in the womb. This is important because the development helps a child learn and grow, effecting their future learning, education, and social skills. Brain development begins right in the womb and continues to flourish after birth. A child’s brain develops through neurons and their connections by synapses. Neurons communicate at synapses throughRead MoreThe Human Brain vs. the Computer1442 Words   |  6 PagesThe Human Brain vs. the Computer Over the millennia, Man has come up with countless inventions, each more ingenious than the last. However, only now, as the computer arises that mankinds sentience itself is threatened. Ridiculous, some may cry, but I say look about you! The computer has already begun to hold sway over so many of the vital functions that man has prided himself upon before. Our lives are now dependent upon the computer and what it tells you. Even now, I type this essay upon

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Explain the factors that would lead to suspicion of child maltreatment or abuse free essay sample

Explain the factors that would lead to suspicion of child maltreatment or abuse. The different types of maltreatment is sexual abuse, Sexual abuse refers to any action that pressures or forces someone to do something sexually they dont want to do. Sexual abuse can be when you’re being touched in a way that you may not like, or being forced to have sex, another type of sexual abuse is when somebody is forced to look at sexual pictures or videos. Sexual abuse can also include someone flashing or exposing themselves to you; this can be via webcam, pictures or in person Youre made to do something sexual to someone that feels uncomfortable or wrong; again, this can on online such as Facebook, online chat rooms etc†¦ Another type of maltreatment is Neglect, this is where Neglect is the failure to provide necessary care, assistance, guidance or attention. There are two different types of neglect, Active neglect and Passive neglect. Purposely causing physical, mental, or emotional injury to someone. Passive neglect is not providing basic needs of life such as such as food, water, medications, medical treatment, , and equipment aids, and rights because of lack of experience, information, or ability. One other type of maltreatment is Physical abuse, physical abuse is any intentional and unwanted contact with you. Physical abuse can contain hitting, punching, burning, slapping, grabbing your face to make you look at them and grabbing you to prevent you from leaving or to force you to go somewhere. Lastly, there is emotional abuse. Emotional abuse the second most common reason for a child to be put on the child protection register or made subject to a child protection plan. Signs of emotional abuse can include: Yelling or swearing, insulting, threats and intimidation, unreasonably ordering an individual around, repeatedly raising the issue of death and humiliating. All of these maltreatments does not only happen from your parents but children can also be high at risk from different people. Risks of maltreatment can be caused from a lot of different type of people from strangers, to foster parents, parents, family members and even health and social car workers. For example, sexual abuse is not always committed by adult males but women can also commit acts of abuse, as can other children. This doesn’t happen just within the family but can also happen with strangers or even institution workers. It is said that Children are still not safe from sexual abuse in institutions such as schools, churches and care homes, the National Crime Agency has warned. An example of this, is that are many Teachers at 62 independent schools convicted of sex crimes over 20 years. The risks of maltreatment can happen within their family members, an example of this was the murder of Victoria Climbie who was murdered by her guardians which was her great-auntie Marie-Therese Kouao and her boyfriend Carl Manning. Victoria Climbie was burnt with cigarettes, tied up for periods up to longer than 24 hours, hit with bike chains, hammers and wires. Indicators of maltreatment may not always mean that they have been abused, and could mean there are other explanations. There are usually different indications of different types of abuse. Indicators for sexual abuse may be avoidance, a young child may understand sexual behaviour to much beyond their age, or a pain or infection in the genital area. The possible indicators for emotional abuse can be Physical and Behavioural indicators. Some physical indicators can be bedwetting or diarrhoea or frequent complaints from headaches, nausea and abdominal pains. Some behavioural indicators are lack of confidence, complains of social isolation, forbidden contact with other children, complains of social isolation and forbidden contact with other children, development delay in terms of emotional progress, sudden speech disorders. The physical signs of neglect may include the child being constantly hungry, constantly dirty and smelly, loss of weight and inappropriate clothing for the conditions. Some changes in behaviour which can also indicate neglect may include the child complaining of being tired all the time, not requesting medical assistance or mentioning being left alone or unsupervised. The indicators of physical abuse can include unexplained bruising, marks or injuries on any part of the body, multiple bruises, broken bones or even multiple burn marks. There can also be a change in behaviour while a child is being physically abused, such as; fear of parents being approached for an explanation, aggressive behaviour, flinching when approached or touched, depression, withdrawn behaviour or even running away from home. The consequences of maltreatment can lead to psychological problems and physical problems. When a child has been abused this can make the child angry. Self-esteem is usually caused when someone is emotionally abused as the person may talk down to the child and make the child feel useless. When somebody is sexually abused, the consequence may be an STI or even unwanted pregnancy. Other consequences that can happen due to abuse is, diseases, stress, and illnesses. These can be due to Neglect, if the child is not looked after properly then the child could end up ill, this can also happen due to neglect if the home environment is not healthy. Some wider factors suggesting a risk of maltreatment could be the use of drugs around the child, which could lead to neglect and abuse. Another indicator of maltreatment could be family dysfunction, this could be anything from family arguments, parents or carers being absent a lot of the time, which could cause the child to not get the care that is needed. If the child does not get the care that is needed then this could cause the child to not develop as well or cause health problems.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Whats the Deal with Improving Sentences and the Essay SAT Writing Guide and Advice

What's the Deal with Improving Sentences and the Essay SAT Writing Guide and Advice SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Have you ever wondered what the SAT is looking for when they ask questions that are confusing? Look no further! In this post, we reveal the goals of the SAT Essay and IdentifyingSentence Errors question types. What’s the Deal with The Essay? This one’s simple: writing requires a multitude of subtle skills, from logic to word choice. But the SAT can’t score them all, so it chose a few: organization, evidence, vocabulary, thesis, sentence structure, and grammar. That leaves out factual accuracy, creativity, and a number of other subtle factors that make writing good or not-so-good. Thus, the SAT Essay is a beast unto itself, because those left-out aspects of writing actually turn out to be kind of important. See, they’re not trying to find out if you’re a good writer;they’re trying to find out if you’re a competent writer, which means you can write on a specific topic with no preparation in a somewhat organized fashion. This means that things like vocabulary and complex sentence structure only get you points if you use them appropriately.For example, many students’ essays substitute the word â€Å"lucid† for â€Å"clear,† when â€Å"clear† can actually mean many more things than â€Å"lucid† can: â€Å"lucid† only means â€Å"easy to understand.† So when students write â€Å"it is lucid that people need good jobs,† they are misusing the word: clear can mean obvious, but lucid can’t. The takeaway here is this: the test only cares about staying on topic; using good, concrete examples; and organizing your thoughts in a logical way. Everything else is too much work for their graders to assess in one or two minutes, so they ignore all of it. This â€Å"everything else,† notably, includes the accuracy of facts: as one recent New York Times article explains, â€Å"you can tell them the war of 1812 started in 1945,† and it won’t hurt your score one bit. What’s the Deal with IdentifyingSentence Errors? These questions in the Writing section give you a sentence with four underlined parts and a â€Å"No error† option. Then they ask which underlined portion of the sentence contains an error, like so: The Florida sunset being(A) best viewed from(B) the West Coast on a clear day(C)in the summer(D). No error. (E) Again, the College Board has come up with a relatively clumsy waytotest writing skills without carefully reading millions of essays. Because they have specific errors they wantto test, and it’s sometimes hard to do that in a realistic way,IdentifyingSentence Errors questionsoftenlook like something nobody would ever write. In the example above, they’re trying to test verb forms (‘being’ should say ‘is’). This is a common high schoolers’ error, and someone in high school might make it in a sentence like this: The main problem with swimming being that I can’t text while I’m doing it. But that error would be too easy, so theyinclude other things that students think are errors (but are actually correct), and end up with weirdsentences about Florida. This is where SAT prep can come in handy: it helps you apply strategies like the one I’m about to explain. Here’s the key: don’t look at these like normal sentences; look at them like word equations, in which each underlined portion must be isolated and deciphered. The Florida sunset being(A) best viewed from(B) the West Coast on a clear day(C)in the summer(D). No error. (E) (A): This word is a verb: does it agree with its subject? Yes. Does it work as the only verb in the sentence? No. Mark it as a possible error until you’ve looked at all the choices. [B]: Is this the right word to use here? Can a sunset be â€Å"viewed from† somewhere? Yes it can. Moving on. [C] Does this makes sense? Are all the words correct, and do they fit together correctly? Yes they do. [D] Is this the right way to say during the summertime? Yes, it is. Now go back to the one(s) you think could be the answer(s). How sure are you that [A] is wrong? Since an â€Å"-ing† verb can never be the only verb in a sentence (it needs a helping verb, like â€Å"is doing† or â€Å"can be seeing†), you can be sure it’s wrong. Mark it! Other Posts You May Be Interested In: What is a good SAT score? A bad SAT score? SAT Writing Guide Part I: Improving Paragraphs: SAT Writing Guide Part III: Improving Sentences

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Intro MGT Informat Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Intro MGT Informat Systems - Essay Example Despite proper planning of the initiation phase, continuous evaluation of the implementation process is vital in project implementation. During the implementation phase, communication is vital in the project implementation process (Kerzner). Communication ensures that the transfer of information within the work force is effective thus improving the implementation process. The various phase of implementation process involves the combination of different departments in the implementation process. The communication process in the project work must accommodate various technological changes such as use of latest communication technology such as the use of Email and social networks. The selection of the best possible technology for use in the project work must consider the budgetary allocation of the project. It deals with the understanding of the information management and system available and the implementation process demands. The leadership of an organization can influence the motivation of the people leading better performance in project management. Emotional intelligent is vital in the leadership success. To have a successful project leader, the understanding of the leadership styles and emotional intelligence is mandatory allowing for exclusive understanding of the organization structure. Leadership in project management must always have the mission and vision of the project to avoid management crisis such as loss of organizational focus and goals. The goals of the project are vital because they facilitate the development of organizational structure and organization. Additionally, the planning phase of the project must ensure that all factors that may influence implementation are evaluated. The creation of plans ensures that all activities are considered in the process of planning and the magnitude of activities, threats and opportunities existing during the